EVELYN, John, Sculptura: Or, The History, And Art of Chalcography And Engraving in Copper. With an ample enumeration of the most renowned Masters, and their Works. To which is annexed A new manner of Engraving, or Mezzo Tinto, communicated by his Highness Prince Rupert, to the Authour of this Treatise, London, G. Beedle, 1662.1 quotations
If in truth Naked, and other polite Bodies were so formed, as that we might detect the course, and inclination of the Threads, Fibers, and Grain, so as we perceive it in Stuffs, Cloth, Linnen and other Draperies ; nothing would appear more facile ; for let them assume what ply they will, it does not all concern the tissue, Tenor or range of the Threads and Wales (as they call them) which is easily imitated, both as to their inclinations, and distances from the point of sight.
But since we are much at a loss, and can perceive no such direction or clue in Nudities, and other smooth surfaces, it were haply worth the while, to find out some expedient which should assist the imagination in this affair, and that might encounter the difficulty upon other terse and even objects, by forming such stroaks, and directors upon them in our Imagination ; observing, that there are some parts in them commonly to be distinguished from the Mass in gross ; for example, the hairs in men, eyes, teeth, nails, &c. that as one would conceive such lines, or hatches on those Masses, others may likewise be as well fanci’d upon those lesser, and more delicate members
SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.1 quotations
CHAP. VII. Of Shadowing a naked body.
I. The shadows of the neck, in a child or young woman, are very fine, rare, and hard to be seen : In a man, the finews and veins are expressed by shadowing of the rest of the neck, and leaving them white : the shoulder is shadowed underneath : the brawn of the arm must appear full and white, shadowed on one side.
BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.1 quotations
Some further Observations in drawing a Naked Figure, standing Foreright, by the Life.
In my Opinion, to understand how to make choice of a good Naked, and to draw it well, is one of the most Difficult Studies in Painting, because it cannot be done well without the understanding of Anatomy. Being then desirous to draw a Naked Figure, you must strike a Line Perpendicular as long you would have the Figure to be, then you divide that Line into so many Divisions or Parts as you design the Proportion […]. And since Nature, that Cunning Work-Mistress, is so extremely Various in her Representations, the Painter is not bound to observe this Rule exactly when he draws to the life ; because all these Rules were intended for no other use then to create the Idea of such and such Proportions first in our Brain, and before they be designed in a true Symmetrical way upon Paper, and to prevent us from Designing our Figures in an Extravagant or Preposterous Proportion. […].
Observe (as you proceed downwards) to place all the Muscles in their right and proper places according to Nature, as you judiciously may observe in the Life, there being no certain Rules for placing and drawing the Muscles in their proper places Therefore ’tis extremely Advantageous to draw very much after the Life, and after good Prints of Anatomy, and those Statues aforementioned, and Anatomies of Plaster of Paris, which is the onely way to arrive at the perfection of Drawing a Naked Figure well ; without which never expect to be a good History Painter.