SALMON, William, Polygraphice, Or The Art of Drawing, Engraving, Etching, Limning, Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring and Dying. In three Books. I. Shews the Drawing of Men, and other Animal Creatures, Landskips, Countries, and Figures of Various Forms. II. The way of Engraving, Etching and Limning, with all their Requisits and Ornaments. III. The way of Painting, Washing, Varnishing, Colouring, and Dying, according to the Method of the best Authors now Extant. Exemplified in the Painting of the Antients, Washing of Maps, Globes, or Pictures ; Dying of Cloth, Silks, Bones, Wood, Glass, Stones and Metals : together with the way of Varnishing thereof according to any Purpose or Intent. The Like never yet Extant. By W. S. a Lover of Art, London, E.T. and R.H., 1672.1 quotations
CHAP. XIX. Of Washing, and the Materials thereof.
I. By washing, here we intend nothing else, but either to set out Maps or Printed Pictures in proper Colours, or else to vernish them.
II. The Instruments and Materials of washing are chiefly six, to wit, 1. Alom-water, 2. Size, 3. Liquid Gold, 4. Pensils, 5. Colours, 6. Vernish.
VI. Pensils are to be of all sorts both fitchd and pointed ; as also a large pensil brush to past Maps upon Cloath ; another to wet the paper with Alom water ; a third to starch the face of the picture withall before it be coloured ; and a fourth to varnish withall.
VII. The colours are the same with those which we mentioned in Chap. 17. lib. 2. to which add, I. Of Black, Printers black, Franckford black, 2. Of Red, Vermilion, Rosset, 3. Of Blew, Verditure, Litmos, Flory, 4. Of Yellow, Cambogia, Yellow berries, Orpiment, 5. Brazil, Logwood (ground) and Turnsole, Cochenele, Madder.
CHAP. XX. Of Colours simple for Washing
I. Printers black, Vermilion, Rosset, Verditure, and Orpiment are to be ground, [...].
II. Brazil. [...].
III. Logwood. [...].
IV. Cochenele [...].
CHAP. XXI. Of Compouned Colours for Washing
I. Orange Colour. Red Lead and Yellow berries make a good Orange colour : or thus, take Arnotto half an ounce, Pot ashes one Drachm, water one pound, boil it half away, then strain it, and use it hot.
It is good for white leather, paper, vellom, quills, parchment, &c.
II. Green. [...]. [...] CHAP. XXIV. Of the practice of Washing.
I. With the Alom-water wet over the pictures to be coloured, for that keeps the colours from sinking into the paper, and will add a lustre unto them, make them shew fairer, and keep them from fading.
BROWNE, Alexander, Ars Pictoria : or an Academy Treating of Drawing, Painting, Limning, Etching. To which are Added XXXI. Copper Plates, Expressing the Choicest, Nearest, and Most Exact Grounds and Rules of Symmetry. Collected out of the most Eminent Italian, German, and Netherland Authors. By Alexander Browne, Practitioner in the Art of Limning. The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarged by the Author, London, Arthur Tooker - William Battersby, 1675.1 quotations
Of Drapery, or drawing Apparel.
As for Apparel and Clothing of Personages, you ought to be extreme careful not onely in the Habiting every thing properly belonging to the Degrees and Functions of the Persons represented, but also in giving them their right and proper Colours. As for Example, the Blessed Virgin is universally and by commont consent represented in Purple and Azure ; […]. As for the manner of Drawing of Drapery, I find but two ways in Miniture.
The first way or manner of Working the Drapery.
The first way is that which the Italian and French do use, working it with the point of a Pencil, and Hatching it ; and other places stipled all over alike, yet so as when it is finished, you may perceive the Parchment appear in several places quite through the Work, which in my Opinion is too slight a way. That manner I do approve of better, for Washing or Drawing any Design with Indian Ink, and indeed ought not to be called Limning but Washing.
The second way or manner of Working a Drapery.
The second way is that which I shall recommend to you as the best and most proper way. First, lay a good full flat Ground all over where you design your Drapery, of what Colour you would have it. This Groud-colour being laid, you will find it much the easier to work on, upon which you both heighten and deepen, according as your Genius or as the Life shall direct you. […] ; and this was Isaac Olivar’s Way.
ANONYME, The Excellency of the Pen and Pencil, Exemplifying The Uses of them in the most Exquisite and Mysterious Arts of Drawing, Etching, Engraving, Limning, Painting in Oyl, Washing of Maps & Pictures. Also the way to Cleanse any Old Painting, and Preserve the Colours. Collected from the Writings of the ablest Masters both Ancient and Modern, as Albert Durer, P. Lomantius, and divers others. Furnished with divers Cuts in Copper, being Copied from the best Masters, and here inserted for Examples for the Learner to Practice by. A Work very useful for all Gentlemen, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers or others, London, Dorman Newman, 1688.3 quotations
OF WASHING or COLOURING OF Maps, and Printed Pictures.
The Fifth Book.
Uo Wash Maps or Printed Pictures is nothing else but to set them out in their proper Colours, which to perform well is a very fine thing. I have seen a Printed Picture printed upon fine Parchment, only washed with Water-colours, which could hardly be distinguished from a Limned piece ; and there are many now in England very excellent at it. If any ingenious spirit that delights in Picture, and hath not time or opportunity to study to be a proficient in Painting in Oyl or Limning, I would advise him to practice this, which is very delightful, and quickly attained ; the manner of performing of it I shall here in this Book teach.
SECT. I. Of Colours for washing.
Here note, that all the Colours that are mentioned in the Second Chapter of the Third Book concerning Limning in Water-Colours, are all to be used in Washing or Colouring of Pictures ; wherefore provide your self of those Colours, grind them, wash them, and steep and temper them according as you are directed in that Second Chapter ; I say, you must have all these Colours in a readiness ; and for Colouring of Prints some other Colours, namely these that follow, which how to order I will anon shew you.
Colours to be used in Washing, which are not used in Limning.
BLACKS. / Printers Black, / or / Franckford-black, / to be had of the / Plate-Printers.
REDS / Vermilion. / Rosset.
BLEWS. / Verditure. / Litmos. / Flory.
YELLOWS. Gumbooge, Yellow-berries, Orpiment.
Also these ;
Brazeel and Log-wood ground, and Turnsoil.
Of these Colours above-mentioned, Printers Black, Vermilion. Rosset, Verditure, and Orpiment are to be Ground as is taught in the second Section of the second Chapter of the third Book, page 70. and therefore, I say, Grind them as you are there taught.
Now for the other Colours above-mentioned, they are to be ordered several ways, as followeth.
1. Of Litmos, how to order it.
Take fine Litmos and cut it in small pieces, then lay it in steep the space of twenty four hours […] it will be a pure Blew Water, good to Wash withall.
2. Of Flory Blew.
Take Flory Blew and grind it with the white of an Egg, […].
Flory thus ground, if you add thereto a little Rosset, it maketh a light Violet-colour.
If you mix with it both Red and white Lead, it maketh a Crane Feather-colour.
It, and Pink, Masticote, or Gum-booge make a fair Green.
3. Of Gumbooge.
Take Gumbooge and dissolve it in fair spring-water, and it maketh a most beautiful and transparent Yellow.
4. Of Yellow-Berries.
Take Yellow-Berries, bruise them a little, and let them steep in Allum-water all night, in the morning you will have a very fair Yellow to Wash withall.
5. Of Turnsoil.
Turnsoil is made of pieces of Linnen cloth dyed of a kind of Violet-colour.
[…] it is an excellent good liquor to shadow upon any Carnation or Yellow.
6. Of Brazeel.
Take Brazeel grownd, to which put a quantity of small Beer, […] it maketh a very transparent Red.
7. Of Logwood.
If you boyl Log-wood grownd in all respects as you did your Brazeel, it will make a very fair transparent Purple-colour.
Chap. II. Of other Colours for Washing, both Simple and Compounded.
1. How to make a Green colour of Copper-plates.
Take any shreds of Copper, and put distilled Vinegar to them, […], and it will be a good Green.
2. To make a Green another way.
The best is Cedar-green, but that is dear ; therefore you may take green Bise and steep it in Vinegar, […].
3. Another Green.
Take the juyce of Rew, and a little Verdigrease, and a little Saffron, and grind them well together, and use it with a little Gum-water.
4. For light Greens.
Sap-greens, Flower de Bise, or Tawny-green, these need no grinding, only steep’d in fair water, Verditer and Ceruss mixt with a little Copper-green, makes a good light colour.
5. To shadow Greens.
Indico and Yellow-berries will do very well.
6. Greens for Landskips and Rocks.
Temper your Green with white Pink, Bise, Masticote, Smalt, or Indico, or Ceruss.
Blew Verditer mixt with a few Vellow-Berries, make another Green.
7. To make a Blew.
There is Venice-Ultamarine, but this is very dear ; there are Bises of several sorts, deeper or paler ; there is Smalt and Verditer ; grind any of these with Gum-water.
8. Of shadowing Blews.
There is Indico, Litmos, or Flory, take any of these, they need no grinding, steep them in the lees of Sope ashes ; […].
9. To make a Brown.
Take Ceruss, Red-Lead, English-Oker, and Pink.
10. Spanish Brown.
It’s a dirty colour, yet of great use if you burn it till it be red hot ; but if you would colour any hare, horse, or dog, or the like, you must not burn it, but to shadow Vermilion, or to lay upon any dark ground behind a Picture, or to shadow Berries in the darkest places, or to colour any wooden Poste, Wainscot, bodies of Trees, or any thing else of Wood, or any dark ground on a Picture.
11. How to make an Orange-colour.
Red-Lead is the nearest to an Orange, put a few Yellow-berries into it, makes a good Orange.
12. A Flesh-colour.
Take of White and a little Lake, and some Red-Lead mixed, you may make it light or red as you please, by adding more or less White in shadowing the Cheeks and other places, if you would have a swarthy complexion : and to distinguish the Mans flesh from the Womans, mingle a little yellow Oker among your Flesh.
13. Colours for the Skie.
Light Masticote, or Yellow-berries, and White for the lowest and lightest places ; red Posset, White for the next degree ; blew Bise and White for the other ; and blew Bise for the highest, for want of Bise use Verditer ; these must be worked together ; you must not receive any sharpness in the edg of your Colour, and they must be so laid on, that you cannot perceive where you first began to lay them, you must so drown them one in another.
14. To make colours for Precious stones.
15. Colours for Landskips.
For the saddest Hills use burnt Umber, for the lightest places put some Yellow to the burnt Umber ; and for the other Hills lay Copper-green thickned on the fire, or in the Sun ; for the next Hills further off, mix some Yellow-berries with Copper green, and let the fourth part be done with green Verditer ; and the furthest, faintest places with the blew Bise, and for want of that, with blew Verditer mingled with White for the lightest places, and shadowed with blew Verditer in the shadows indifferent thick ; the Highways do with Red-Lead and White, […] ; the Rocks you may do with several colours, […] the Water must be black Verditer and White, […]
16. Colours for Building.
When you colour Buildings, do it with as much variety of pleasant colours as possible can be imagined, yet not without reason, and let discretion rule you in mixing your Colours ; […].
17. How to Shadow every colour in Garments, or Drapery.
Take this Rule, that every Colour is made to shadow it self, or if you mingle it with White for the light, and so shadow it with the same colour unmingled with White, else take off the thinnest of the colour for the light, and so shadow it with the thickest bottom of the colour ; if you will have your shadow of a darker colour, then the colour it self is to shadow the deepest places.